Birds and wind farms/climate change

General birdwatching discussion, help with bird identification, and all other things relating to wild birds and birding in NZ that don't fit in one of the other forums.
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Michael Szabo
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Predicting which species succeed in climate-forced polar seas

Postby Michael Szabo » Sat Jan 26, 2019 8:36 am

A new study "Predicting which species succeed in climate-forced polar seas" published in Frontiers in Marine Science by British Antarctic Survey researchers has determined winners and losers of climate change in the Antarctic. They show that marine animals associated with sea ice for food or breeding, such as humpback whales and emperor penguins, are most at risk from the effects of climate change, while seafloor predators and open-water feeding animals like starfish and jellyfish will benefit from the opening up of new habitat.

Link to paper: https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10 ... 00507/full
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Neil Fitzgerald
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Shorebird nest predation disrupted by climate change

Postby Neil Fitzgerald » Tue Jan 29, 2019 8:25 pm

Abstract
Ongoing climate change is thought to disrupt trophic relationships, with consequences for complex interspecific interactions, yet the effects of climate change on species interactions are poorly understood, and such effects have not been documented at a global scale. Using a single database of 38,191 nests from 237 populations, we found that shorebirds have experienced a worldwide increase in nest predation over the past 70 years. Historically, there existed a latitudinal gradient in nest predation, with the highest rates in the tropics; however, this pattern has been recently reversed in the Northern Hemisphere, most notably in the Arctic. This increased nest predation is consistent with climate-induced shifts in predator-prey relationships.


Kubelka V, Šálek M, Tomkovich P, Végvári Z, Freckleton RP, Székely T 2018. Global pattern of nest predation is disrupted by climate change in shorebirds. Science 362: 680-683.

http://science.sciencemag.org/content/362/6415/680
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Michael Szabo
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Predator‐mediated effects of severe drought on a seabird

Postby Michael Szabo » Fri Mar 08, 2019 8:46 am

Predator‐mediated effects of severe drought associated with poor reproductive success of a seabird in a cross‐ecosystem cascade

Sarah Thomsen and David Green, Department of Biological Sciences, Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, BC, V5A 1S6 Canada
Global Change Biology, 17 February 2019

Abstract: Despite the profound impacts of drought on terrestrial productivity in coastal arid ecosystems, only a few studies have addressed how drought can influence ecological cascades across ecosystem boundaries. In this study, we examine the consequences of rainfall pulses and drought that subsequently impact the breeding success of a threatened nocturnal seabird, the Scripps's Murrelet (Synthliboramphus scrippsi). On an island off the coast of southern California, the main cause of reduced nest success for one of their largest breeding colonies is egg predation by an endemic deer mouse (Peromyscus maniculatus elusus). Mice on the island have an opportunistic diet of primarily terrestrial sources, but drastic declines in terrestrial productivity from drought might be expected to increase their reliance on marine resources, including murrelet eggs. We compiled data on terrestrial and marine productivity between 1983‐2013 to determine how conditions in these ecosystems influence murrelet nest success. We found that the severity of drought had the strongest negative impact on murrelet nest success. We calculated that the reduction in fecundity during drought years due to increased egg predation by mice was substantial enough to produce a declining population growth rate. Nest success was much higher under normal or high rainfall conditions, depending on whether oceanic conditions were favorable to murrelets. Therefore, the more frequent and severe drought that is projected for this region could lead to an increased risk of murrelet population decline on this island. Our study highlights the need for understanding how species interactions will change through the effects of increasing drought and altered rainfall regimes under global change.

Link to study: https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/gcb.14595
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Michael Szabo
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Adaptive responses to climate change most likely insufficient

Postby Michael Szabo » Wed Aug 14, 2019 8:12 am

Adaptive responses of animals to climate change are most likely insufficient (in Nature Communications)

Abstract: Biological responses to climate change have been widely documented across taxa and regions, but it remains unclear whether species are maintaining a good match between phenotype and environment, i.e. whether observed trait changes are adaptive. Here we reviewed 10,090 abstracts and extracted data from 71 studies reported in 58 relevant publications, to assess quantitatively whether phenotypic trait changes associated with climate change are adaptive in animals. A meta-analysis focussing on birds, the taxon best represented in our dataset, suggests that global warming has not systematically affected morphological traits, but has advanced phenological traits. We demonstrate that these advances are adaptive for some species, but imperfect as evidenced by the observed consistent selection for earlier timing. Application of a theoretical model indicates that the evolutionary load imposed by incomplete adaptive responses to ongoing climate change may already be threatening the persistence of species.

Link to study: https://www.nature.com/articles/s41467-019-10924-4
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Michael Szabo
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Two-thirds of North American bird species are at increasing risk of extinction from global temperature rise

Postby Michael Szabo » Fri Oct 11, 2019 9:53 am

Two-thirds of North American bird species are at increasing risk of extinction from global temperature rise. National Audubon Society scientists used 140 million observations, recorded by birders and scientists, to describe where 604 North American bird species live today. They then used the latest climate models to project how each species’ range will shift as climate change and other human impacts advance across the continent. The results are clear: birds will be forced to relocate to find favorable homes. And they may not survive.

Link: https://www.audubon.org/climate/surviva ... vCbi_dzaDk
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Michael Szabo
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Climate change and Australian birds

Postby Michael Szabo » Sat Oct 12, 2019 11:52 am

A new report on the impacts of climate change in Australia has compiled images of birds and mammals that have died of heat stress and dead trees, coral reefs and kelp forests. "Australia's ecosystems are being transformed before our eyes,” the report says. “Already bruised and battered by multiple human-induced stresses including land clearing, invasive species and freshwater diversion, climate change is adding insult to injury.

“Solutions are at hand. We need to accelerate the transition to clean, affordable and reliable renewable energy and storage technologies and ramp up other climate solutions in transport, industry, agriculture, land use and other sectors. Our health, economy, communities, and precious natural icons depend on it.”

Link to photos: https://www.australiangeographic.com.au ... bKJcRz8DKw

Link to report: https://www.climatecouncil.org.au/resou ... iH98vVrfh8
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